The Noughties, from a Torres Islands perspective.
[Note: this post was slightly edited on 01-02-10]
As the title of this post indicates, the intention is to try offer a summary of some important events, i.e., those that not only stood out but also had a visible medium or long term effect on daily life, from the point of view of my friends and hosts in the Torres Islands during the past 10 years.
There are two caveats that need to be clarified from the outset, 1) it being impossible for me to become a Torres Islander, this listing summarises some events that appeared to be relevant from MY perspective as an outside observer and visitor, but, 2), nonetheless, the fact that they had a lasting impact on local people’s lives is what, in my view, qualifies them for inclusion in this brief set of notes.
So why bother, if my perspective is going to be partial and incomplete? (I have lived on the Torres between Spring 1999 – Summer 2001; Spring-Summer 2004: Summer-Autumn 2006; Summer 2008…36 months in all, which hardly comes to 3 years out of 10).
First, I feel that sharing these observations offers one more way of reflecting on the realities of social change in this community. Second, I hope this material may provide a little bit of food for thought regarding relevant experiences in the collective lives of a community who, by virtue of their often silent and out-of-the-way position on the margins of Vanuatu, do not fit easily within mainstream statistics about developments and experiences in this island nation. Finally, this list offers a slightly different take on the summaries of relevant issues that we are fed every end-of-decade by the global media (which is not meant as an invidious comment, just a statement).
At a more selfish level, this exercise helps me to put certain things into perspective that would otherwise mould away in my field diaries.
So, herewith a list of those things that mattered to Torres Islanders, in terms of altering their lives or activities in relevant ways, during the period 1999-2009…not that it would matter to most of the islanders in question, since Gregorian datekeeping is not relevant to people’s everyday time perception – an important point that, in itself, can render this whole exercise slightly artificial! But I digress.
In no specific order of priority:
- The arrival, in Autumn 1999, of the first microwave telephone dish to the Islands, with which there has since been a more or less direct connection with the rest of the archipelago via four or five phone lines. Despite the ups and downs of this system, mostly due to failures of maintenance and the vagaries of hurricane season, over the years it has proven to greatly facilitate contact with family and business associates in Port Vila and Luganville, thereby altering the previous system of commerce (which was mostly represented by the hard-earned business set up twenty years previously by the single successful shop-owner in the Torres prior to the phone lines).
- The celebration of a lehtemet (initiation ceremony) in November 2003. This was the first ceremony of its kind for over fifteen years, and saw a record number of young men (around eight) being initiated into the hukwe, or local graded society. The communal effort and preparatory planning for this ceremony took a good two years.
- The death of olfala Philip Tagaro in the Winter of 2004. Olfala Philip was the second oldest man in the Islands and one of the last experts of traditional knowledge and ritual practices. He held a high rank within the hukwe, and was feared and admired in equal measure, as attested by the huge number of mourners who attended his funerary rites and feast.
- In 2005, for the first time in most people’s memories, a teenage girl from the island of Loh made it past the virtually impossible (because dismal and highly competitive) Secondary School system in TorBa Province and managed to secure enrollment in a High School on Malo Island, close to Luganville (with a little bit of financial assistance from a certain Salül in respect of school fees). Sadly, the big city lights of Luganville proved to be more attractive and she dropped out during her first year. But she eventually made her way back to Loh and is now a budding Primary School teacher, the first more or less qualified local woman to make it that far, so all’s well that ends well.
- Local enthusiasm for the establishment of bungalows inorder to attract more visitors to this remote corner of Vanuatu begins to seep in as a result of various nation-wide initiatives which were initially undertaken in the late 90s by government and NGOs and have gradually been formalised under the VIBTA. Between 2002-2004 two competing families erected their respective tourist bungalows. To date, only one of them was the more successful, but both families have had a very difficult time making any significant gains from their efforts, due to the vagaries of international tourism and the fact that, all in all, most one-off visitors to Vanuatu are not primarily attracted to flying to a tiny corner of the archipelago when they can visit the Tanna or Ambrym volcanoes, be treated to easygoing eco-tourism on North Efate, or witness “genuine” kastom ceremonies on Malakula.
- The election, for the first time in the history of independent Vanuatu, of a Torres Islander to the national parliament of Vanuatu, in 2006. For the most part, the constituency of the Torres Islands had always been held hostage to the voting preferences of its neighours (and many family) on Mota Lava, in the Banks Islands, given that the meagre number of eligible voters in the Torres was always too low to produce a successful local candidate. In this case, the Torres dumped their brethren on Mwotlap in favour of an impromptu alliance with communities on Gaua and Vanua Lava.
- Tropical Cyclone Ivy (Category 4) bulldozes its way across most of Vanuatu, from south to north, in February 2004. Heavy garden damage in the Banks and Torres exposes local dependency on emergency food aid.
- Summer 2004, the Melanesian Brotherhood establishes a Household on the Torres. It is named Towia Household, in honour of the first Torres Islander who was ordained an Anglican priest. This brought the Brotherhood’s activities and peculiar worldview much closer to many Torres youth, several of whom were rapidly inducted into the order.
- Tropical Cyclone Funa (Cat. 4) scrapes just south of the Torres in January 2008. The associated tidal surge left a clear swath of destruction on the eastern edge of the lagoon separating islands Loh from Linua (mostly made up of coconut palms and mangrove). Damage to gardens is heavy, but some areas of the Torres are spared.
- A series of earthquakes, the greatest measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale, strike the Torres in October 2009. The epicentre for the three most powerful tremors was a mere 3 kms North of the Islands, at the edge of the Torres Trench and on the border with the South East Solomons. In the meantime, the volcanic caldera on neighbouring Mt. Garet (Gaua island) keeps acting up, threatening possible disruption across most of TorBa Province.
- The gradual effects of a general sales tax (VAT) and the so-called reforms introduced, starging in 1997-98, by the Comprehensive Reform Programme (CRP) that was foisted on Vanuatu by the Asian Development Bank and several regional governments and aid agencies meant, among several things, the imposition of larger fees for primary health care and education (mostly at the Secondary School level). Both of these enlightened reforms have had a direct and obvious impact on Torres people’s lives, mainly by forcing many heads of family to have to work harder and divert ever more of their already meagre cash income in order to receive government services that were and should be either free or virtually so. I have strong opinions on this, and I know that there are some good arguments in favour of CRP, but I won’t go into that discussion right now (some relevant links here and here).
Specific events and rough dates aside, two other processes which clearly caught people’s attention and affected their lives during this period were:
1) the increasing presence of DVD players in local villages. Although they are still only an occasional phenomenon -subject to specific people purchasing a player AND a petrol-run electric generator and then transporting them all the way to their village, only to have something break down sooner rather than later- the impact of videos on people’s perception of the outside world has been palpable: depressingly, most of the content tends to either be violent American or Asian movies, cheap music videos from PNG, Fiji or the Solomons, OR Christian missionary propaganda, and,
2) the recent effect of the Seasonal Guest-Workers’ Programme that was initiated by the New Zealand government in order to recruit ni-Vanuatu willing to work for specific periods of time in the agricultural sector. The flow of workers and subsequent remittances has begun to make a huge impression on the young men of the Torres, as well as the rest of the archipelago. It will be interesting to see, during my next visit a month from now, if anybody from Torres has managed to pay for their passport and get hired in Kiwiland yet, and how remittances might impact this small community.
And that’s about all that comes to mind right now.
More to come, if I can manage to post a little bit more often throughout the coming year!